The Performance of a chess player is given by his KSA = Knowledge, Skills and Abilitys.
"According to Lindner and Dooley (2002) knowledge is a body of information, supported by professionally acceptable theory and research that individuals use to perform effectively and successfully in a given task. Skill is present, observable competence to perform a learned psychomotor act. Effective performance of skills requires application of related knowledge. Ability, on the other hand is a present competence to perform an observable behaviour or a behaviour that results in observable outcomes. Collectively, knowledge, skills and abilities are referred to as
competences. Competences are behavioural dimensions that help to identify effective from ineffective performance. " ( see here )
"Psychomotor skills refer to those types of skills that are developed as a result of constant use of the skills in question. These skill sets are usually utilized for the performance of specified duties. For instance, they may be utilized to perform everyday tasks that the individual may have become so adapted to that it requires little thought or concentration to perform them. Psychomotor skills may also be learned as part of the process of specializing in the performance of a particular task." ( see here )
"E. J. Simpson's 1972 model of psychomotor development begins with perception, which involves understanding simple tasks and perceiving how they should to be done. Next, students must develop the appropriate mindsets to complete the task. In the guided response stage, a teacher or coach walks students through the steps of the process. In the mechanism and complex overt response stages, students perform the task with increasing speed, strength, agility or confidence. Finally, learners must be able to adapt their skills to new situations or to create new products based on their skill set."
( see here )
ExampleUsually motorskills are explained with physical examples like riding a bicycle, here a different one.
Bruce Lee said once: "I fear not the man who has practiced 10,000 kicks once, but I fear the man who has practiced one kick 10,000 times."
"It may be said that a psychomotor skill is cultivated over a length of time through repeated performance, in which a person is so used to doing something that he or she does not need to think too deeply while performing the task." ( see here )
Back to ChessAs higher rated the chessplayer as quicker he can solve a tactic puzzle. This effect is not only at complicated puzzles like a complicated mate in 7: "If chess players’ are, for example, asked to detect as fast as possible, whether one of the kings is checked or not, masters are clearly superior in speed as well as in accuracy (Saariluoma, 1984, 1985). The same superiority can be also be found when chess players assess if a mate in one possible " ( see here )
Every ~~200 Elo-Points a chess Player gets twice as fast without loss of quality
A Master only needs 4 seconds to memorise a "typical" chess position. His skills tells him who has more material, who has more space and where, which pieces are pinned, by which pieces ..... ( He did look for these things over and over again ) So even if he dont remember the precise position of a piece he can reconstruct the position using the memorised information about its interactions.
So i think that the performance in chess is based more on skills and not that much on Knowledge and Ability's. The chess knowledge of a professional chess player gets bigger and bigger but his rating after a certain age not.
And i guess: here is the reason why improvement in chess is so hard for adult players, My Hypothesis is that there are too many chess related (sub)skills, to improve for an adult chess player, just by playing chess or solving tactic puzzles or reading chess books. I guess that an older need more and easier exercises to improve these skills than a youngster. A older need to learn a small set of vocabulary and repeat them over and over again to learn a language, a baby can do different. No adult can learn a language the same way as a baby. Examples of such easy chess skill exercises are GM Maurice Ashley's Skill builder and some other exercises at the right side of this page.
I will continue to work on sub skills of the tactical-skill like the "Most Valuable Skills in Chess named by Maurice Ashley" , Board Vision, Visualisation, Chess memory and Thinking Process. I still hope i can make some progress. But Temposchlucker made a lot of such exercises too. I will have to make it better than him... really no easy task :/